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Коэффициенты фильтрации «бета» фильтров для жидкостей

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Технологии, используемые в современных двигателях, интенсивно совершенствуются. Растет и потребность в эффективной фильтрации топлива. Фильтры Donaldson для топлива, смазочного масла, охлаждающей жидкости и гидравлической жидкости проектируются с учетом определенных требований производителей оборудования и должны иметь определенные коэффициенты фильтрации.

Для фильтров указывается размер задерживаемых частиц в микронах (1 микрон = 1 миллионная часть метра), однако сам по себе этот параметр не имеет большого значения без какой-либо меры эффективности фильтрующего материала для заданного размера частиц. Можно заявить, что рулон туалетной бумаги может задерживать 10-микронные частицы, однако с какой эффективностью или какой процент 10-микронных частиц может быть задержан?

Чтобы избежать недопонимания, производители должны указывать эффективность фильтрующего материала, определяемую как «коэффициент бета» или коэффициент фильтрации. Международный стандарт ISO 16889 определяет восемь распространенных коэффициентов фильтрации, указывающих на эффективность фильтра: бета 2, 10, 20, 75, 100, 200, 1000 и 2000. Что значат эти цифры и почему их так много?

Испытания по методу ISO проводятся с использованием счетчиков частиц и контрольной жидкости, в которую добавляют загрязнения. Количество частиц известного размера подсчитывается до и после фильтра.

Коэффициент бетаСколько частиц заданного размера проходит через фильтр?Фактическая эффективность фильтра
21 из 2 частиц50 %
101 из 10 частиц90 %
201 из 20 частиц95 %
751 из 75 частиц98,7 %
1001 из 100 частиц99 %
2001 из 200 частиц99,5 %
10001 из 1000 частиц99,9 %
20001 из 2000 частиц99,95 %

Если кому-то требуется 5-микронный фильтр, важно спросить, какой необходим коэффициент фильтрации. Очевидно, что фильтрующий материал с коэффициентом бета 1000 значительно эффективнее, чем материал с коэффициентом бета 2 для частиц заданного размера.

Рукав рубашки может иметь коэффициент бета выше 2000 для частиц размером со стеклянный шарик около 2 сантиметров в диаметре. Тот же рукав может иметь коэффициент бета ниже 2 для частиц размером с частицу порошка талька. Коэффициент бета можно использовать для определения эффективности фильтрации всех жидкостей, масла, дизельного топлива, бензина и т. д.

Тебе может понравиться.

Руководство по выбору продукции для фильтрации технологических жидкостей двигателя

Важно, чтобы размер частиц и коэффициент бета соответствовали предъявляемым требованиям. Более плотный и более эффективный фильтрующий материал, чем указано производителем, может привести к сокращению срока службы элемента и повышению давления. В самых неблагоприятных случаях неправильного использования фильтра это может привести к непредусмотренному удалению присадок из масел. Применение менее эффективного фильтрующего материала обычно продлевает срок службы элемента ценой пропускания большего процента частиц загрязнений. Это может значительно сократить срок службы компонентов.

Monday, August 23rd, 2021 | Posted by Jim Thacker

Epic Games has released Unreal Engine 4.27, the latest update to the game engine and real-time renderer.

Although it’s tempting to think of it as a stopgap release before the game-changing Unreal Engine 5 – now in early access, and due for a production release “targeting 2022” – it’s a massive update in its own right.

The online release notes alone run to over 40,000 words.

But if you don’t want to wade through all of that documentation, we’ve picked out 10 changes we think are particularly significant for artists, as opposed to programmers – from headline features like the new in-camera VFX features, to hidden gems like multi-GPU lightmap baking and the new camera calibration plugin.

We’ve focused primarily on tools for game development and VFX work, but at the end of the article, you can find quick round-ups of the new tools for architectural visualization and live visuals.

Features marked Beta or Experimental are not recommended for use in production yet.

1. Support for OpenColorIO in LED volumes

Unreal Engine 4.27 includes a number of new features for in-camera visual effects work, many tested in production during the making of Epic Games’ new live-action demo.

They include a set of updates to the nDisplay system, used to project CG environments being rendered in real time in Unreal Engine onto a LED wall or dome, against which actors can be filmed.

Key changes include support for the OpenColorIO (OCIO), the colour-management standard specified by the VFX Reference Platform, and described as a ‘gateway’ to ACES colour-managed pipelines for movie work.

In addition, the process of creating new nDisplay set-ups has been streamlined, with a new 3D Config Editor, and all of the key settings consolidated into a single nDisplay Root Actor.

Features added in beta include the option to dedicate a GPU to the inner frustum of the display when running a multi-GPU set-up, enabling more complex content to be displayed there.

In addition, experimental support has been added for running nDisplay on Linux, although some key features – notably, hardware-accelerated ray tracing – are not yet supported.

2. Control virtual cameras from iOS devices with the new Live Link VCAM app

Unreal Engine 4.27 also introduces a number of new features for controlling virtual cameras, intended for scouting locations on virtual sets and for generating camera moves.

They include Live Link VCAM, a new iOS app for controlling virtual cameras from an iPad, described as offering a “more tailored user experience” than the existing Unreal Remote app.

At the minute, we can’t find Live Link VCAM in the App Store, and the online documentation still links to Unreal Remote 2, but we’ve contacted Epic Games for the download link, and will update if we hear back.

Related changes include a new drag-and-drop system for building interfaces for controlling UE4 projects from a tablet or laptop, updates to the Remote Control Presets system, and a new Remote Control C++ API.

3. Level Snapshots for in-camera VFX work and design reviews (Beta)

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The release also introduces a new Level Snapshot system, which makes it possible to save and restore configurations for a level without forcing a permanent change to a project, or to source control.

For in-camera VFX work, the system makes it possible to adjust a CG environment being rendered in Unreal Engine on a per-shot or per-sequence basis.

However, it can also be used more generally to create variant designs for a project for creative reviews.

4. Export levels and animation sequences to USD

Support for Universal Scene Description, Pixar’s increasingly ubiquitous framework for exchanging production data between DCC applications, has also been extended.

Key changes include the option to export an entire Unreal Engine Level as a primary USD file, with any sublevels or assets automatically being exported as separate USD files referenced by that primary file.

Materials with textures can be baked down and exported with the level.

In addition, animation sequences can now be exported to “several USD file formats”. Export includes all bone and blendshape tracks, and both the animation preview mesh and the animation itself.

The implementation also now supports Nvidia’s MDL material schema, favoured by Nvidia over MaterialX in Omniverse, its USD-based – and UE4-compatible – online collaboration platform.

5. Attach hair grooms to Alembic caches

Artists working with hair or fur in Unreal Engine can now attach hair grooms to Alembic caches.

The change makes it possible to bind grooms directly to geometry caches imported from other DCC applications, rather than having to use the “awkward workflow” of binding a groom to a Skeletal Mesh.

It is also now possible to import grooms that have already been simulated and which contain cached per-frame hair data, and play back the simulation in the editor, Sequencer and Movie Render Queue.

6. New camera calibration tool for live compositing (Beta)

Users of Composure, Unreal Engine’s real-time compositing system, get a new Camera Calibration plugin, for matching the lens properties of the physical camera generating the video to the virtual camera in UE4.

The plugin can also be used to apply real-world lens distortion to an Unreal Engine CineCamera.

7. Multi-GPU lightmap baking with support for LODs (Beta)

GPU Lightmass, the new framework for baking lightmaps on the GPU introduced in Unreal Engine 4.26, has been updated, and now supports Level of Detail (LOD) meshes, coloured translucent shadows, and more lighting paramters, including attenuation and non-inverse-square falloff.

It is also now possible to use multiple GPUs for baking lighting, although multi-GPU support is currently limited to Windows 10 and Nvidia GPUs connected via SLI or NVLink bridges.

8. Offline-quality rendering in the Path Tracer (Beta)

Path Tracer, Unreal Engine’s physically accurate rendering mode, gets a sizeable update in verson 4.27.

It now supports refraction; transmission of light through glass surfaces, including approximate caustics; most light parameters, including IES profiles; and orthographic cameras.

The Path Tracer can also now be used to render scenes with a “nearly unlimited” number of lights.

Epic Games pitches the changes as making Path Tracer a viable alternative to the faster hybrid Real-Time Ray Tracing mode for production rendering, particularly for architectural and product visualisation.

According to Epic, Path Tracer now creates “final-pixel imagery comparable to offline renders”.

9. Batch render custom image sequences from Sequencer

Sequencer, Unreal Engine’s cinematics editor, also gets a number of new features, of which the most significant is probably the new Command Line Encoder for its Movie Render Queue.

The encoder makes it possible to batch render image sequences in custom formats using third-party software like FFmpeg, as well as in the preset BMP, EXR, JPEG and PNG formats.

Other changes include a new Gameplay Cue track, for triggering gameplay events directly from Sequencer.

In-game movie playback via Media Framework is now frame-accurately synced with the Sequencer timeline.

10. New debugging tools for Niagara particle effects

Niagara, Unreal Engine’s in-game VFX framework, gets new tools for troubleshooting particle systems, including a dedicated Debugger panel and HUD display.

A new Debug Drawing mode can be used to trace the paths of individual particles within a system.

In addition, Niagara’s Curve Editor has been updated to match the one in Sequencer, providing “more advanced editing tools to adjust keys and retiming” for particle systems.

And there’s more…
But that only scratches the surface of the new features in Unreal Engine 4.27.

For architectural and product visualization, Unreal Engine 4.27 introduces new Datasmith plugins for ArchiCAD and SolidWorks, making it possible to live link either app to Unreal Engine or Twinmotion.

The existing Rhino and SketchUp plugins have also been updated to support live linking.

In addition, several Datasmith operations are now available at runtime, making it possible to create custom applications that can import Datasmith files and manipulate them via Blueprints.

The LIDAR Point Cloud plugin gets new Polygonal, Lasso and Paint selection methods for selecting data points, and performance has been improved when loading, processing and saving point clouds.

For design reviews, the Pixel Streaming system is now officially production-ready.

The system, which makes it possible to run a packaged UE4 project on a server, and stream the rendered frames to users’ web browsers, now supports Linux server instances and instances with AMD GPUs.

For live visuals, the DMX Plugin now integrates with Unreal Engine’s nDisplay and Remote Control systems, and the Pixel Mapping UI has been redesigned.

For virtual and augmented reality, the OpenXR plugin is now officially production-ready, and can be used to create projects for viewing on SteamVR, Oculus, Windows Mixed Reality or HoloLens hardware.

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For facial motion capture, Live Link Face – Epic’s free iOS app for streaming facial animation data from iPhone footage to a 3D character inside Unreal Engine – has been updated.

A new calibration system makes it possible to set a neutral pose each actor, improving the quality of data captured; and the plugin now officially supports iPads with TrueDepth cameras, as well as iPhones.

There are also some significant new features for game developers, as opposed to game artists, including the inclusion of data compression technology Oodle and video codec Bink Video as part of Unreal Engine, following Epic Games’ acquisition of RAD Game Tools; the option to deploy Unreal Engine projects as Containers; the option to build the UE4 runtime as a library; and a new Georeferencing plugin.

You can find a full list of changes, which also include new audio features and updates to the deployment platforms supported, via the link at the foot of this story.

Pricing and system requirements
Unreal Engine 4.27 is available for 64-bit Windows, macOS and Linux.

Use of the editor is free, as is rendering non-interactive content. For game developers, Epic takes 5% of gross lifetime revenues for a game beyond the first $1 million.

Agile input processing is here for smoother, more responsive gameplay

By: Pedro J. Estébanez 21 August 2021

Since it’s not very usual I post here, let me remind you who I am. I’m Pedro, a.k.a. RandomShaper in the Godot community. I’ve been contributing to the engine since 2016, when I discovered it –version 2.1 was the newest– and decided to use it to create my game Hellrule. Precisely while testing this project on different models of Android phones, I found the need to make the improvements I’m explaining in this post.

Old behavior in Godot 3.3.x and before

In a game engine, the engine loop is the sequence of steps that is happening again and again to let the game run. This includes rendering, physics, input processing, and more. Optimizing this loop to run with as little CPU time as possible is important to have smooth gameplay on high-end and low-end hardware alike.

Godot’s engine loop used to look like this (this is heavily simplified to just show what we are talking about here):

The key element of this is the possibility of multiple physics steps being processed per cycle of the engine loop. Consider a game that wants its gameplay logic and physics to run at 60 FPS. To achieve this, the engine needs to poll for the player’s inputs from various sources, such as a mouse, keyboard, gamepad or touchscreen. Ideally, the engine would read the player’s inputs once per each of those gameplay-physics steps so it reacts as quickly as possible to player actions. Also, rendering would happen at that very same pace, so everything stays in sync.

However, depending on the demands of the game and the hardware it’s running on at a given time, that may not be possible. If the device running the game is not powerful enough to keep everything at 60 FPS, the engine will run at a lower effective FPS rate. Rendering and idle processing will then occur less than 60 times per second, but the engine will do its best to have the gameplay-physics running at the target rate, by executing more than one of those physics steps per visible frame.

If you look again at the game loop above, you’ll understand that a consequence of the engine looping at a lower frequency is that, user input is also pumped and handled less frequently, which leads to having a lower responsiveness in addition to a less smooth update of the display.

New behavior in Godot 3.4 beta and later

In order to avoid that, Godot needed to somehow uncouple input from render so the engine main loop looked more like this:

To make that happen, I’ve added the concept of input buffering, which allows that one thread –usually the one consuming events from the OS– stores the input events from the player in a buffer as they are received while the main thread of the engine flushes them at key points of the cycle. This new approach improves the responsiveness of the game in situations of lower-than-ideal FPS.

Download

Windows

If you’re using the portable zip files, just open the zip file in Explorer and drag the folder somewhere convenient, then double-click on the krita icon in the folder. This will not impact an installed version of Krita, though it will share your settings and custom resources with your regular installed version of Krita. For reporting crashes, also get the debug symbols folder.

Note that from this release on we are not making 32 bits Windows builds anymore.

Linux

  • 64 bits Linux: krita-5.0.0-beta1-x86_64.appimage

The separate gmic-qt appimage is no longer needed.

(If, for some reason, Firefox thinks it needs to load this as text: to download, right-click on the link.)

macOS

Note: if you use macOS Sierra or High Sierra, please check this video to learn how to enable starting developer-signed binaries, instead of just Apple Store binaries.

Android

This time, the Android releases are made from the release tarball, so there are translations. We consider Krita on ChromeOS and Android still beta. There are many things that don’t work and other things that are impossible without a real keyboard.

Source code

  • krita-5.0.0-beta1.tar.gz
  • krita-5.0.0-beta1.tar.xz

md5sum

For all downloads:

The Linux appimage and the source .tar.gz and .tar.xz tarballs are signed. You can retrieve the public key here. The signatures are here (filenames ending in .sig).

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Chart a way through ‘alpha’ and ‘beta’ of investment choices: Steve Brice of Standard Chartered

Investors will still do well opting for a middle course on risks and returns

Equity investments keep giving bumper sized returns, almost overlooking all the possible downsides to economies dealing with the pandemic. What should investors be thinking next? Image Credit: AFP

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Conventional wisdom says that you cannot make money by investing in line with the consensus. As with many successful (and damaging) fake news, there is an element of truth to it.

Unfortunately, for the vast majority of investors, this sliver of truth is pretty much irrelevant at best and extremely detrimental to wealth accumulation at worst.

Last week, I met with a high networth individual who asked me whether we were in the ‘overweight equities, risk of a 7-10 per cent equity market correction and buy-the-dip’ camp like most of his advisers. The answer is: Yes.

But alas, the fact that the client is hearing the same from everyone else immediately switched my ‘paranoia radar’ on and nudged me to try to figure out what we are missing. Perhaps, a more relevant question is: “Should we care about being largely in line with the consensus?”

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Going full alpha

To some degree, it depends on your investment objectives. If you are looking to outperform a benchmark (i.e., generate ‘alpha’), then maybe you need to be more conscious about when there is market group-think. However, if you are merely trying to generate decent investment returns over the long term with minimal effort – that is, capture market ‘beta’ – then you need to worry a lot less.

Over any 12-month period, equities have historically, on average, outperformed bonds 60-70 per cent of the time. Therefore, it makes sense that the consensus is for equities to outperform in the coming 12 months – probabilistically this has been the most likely outcome.

Of course, there are reasons why this may not be the case in the “next 12 months”. In late March last year, the pandemic was causing economic lockdowns on a scale we have never experienced before, raising the risk of widespread bankruptcies and a depression. Today, after about 90 per cent gains in equities since the March lows, there are renewed fears that the Delta variant could lead to renewed lockdowns, putting an end to the largely uninterrupted rally.

All eggs in a basket scenario

However, this line of thinking can cause investors to make two common mistakes, which can reinforce each other to hurt investment performance. First, they invest in a narrow basket of securities or asset classes, which increases the volatility of returns, making investing seem riskier than it needs to be.

This, together with the common behavioural bias that the pain of a loss is greater than the emotional benefit from positive financial outcomes, results in the second mistake of keeping too much money on the sidelines (i.e., in deposits which earn little or no interest and, generally, lose purchasing power over time due to inflation).

As Chief Investment Officer of Standard Chartered Bank, my responsibilities are two-fold: First, ensuring that my team does a thorough review of the pros-and-cons of the global economic and financial outlook to try and outperform a benchmark (i.e., generate positive alpha).

So, part of me worries about group-think and we have different tools and processes to quantify it. Second, I am responsible for helping clients grow their investments in a safe and sustainable way that will not leave them worried, should equity markets drop a “normal” 7-10 per cent, or even 30-40 per cent.

In terms of relative importance, I believe my second responsibility is far more important than the first. To place this in context, we have been tracking the performance of our Asia asset allocation models for almost 10 years.

Stay fully invested

While this has performed well over this period, about 90 per cent of the total returns over this period was contributed by ‘beta’ (i.e.. being invested in the markets) while only about 10 per cent was contributed by the ‘alpha’. In my view, capturing the beta return is far more important than worrying excessively about which asset classes to be overweight or underweight in.

To help investors keep this perspective in mind and stay the course on their investments through volatile markets, there are two sources of comfort we try to provide. First, we help investors diversify such that the downturn in their overall portfolio is much smaller in size than it would be if their allocations were highly concentrated.

Second, we try to prepare them mentally for the inevitable market volatility and then guide them through the aftermath of any sell-off, potentially signalling opportunities that the weakness presents. We believe, for the vast majority of investors, being fully invested — and staying fully invested — is the key to achieving financial freedom.

The writer is Chief Investment Officer at Standard Chartered Bank.

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