Что такое двигатель multifuel
Multifuel capable engine oils
Providing protection and simplified logistics for mixed fleet operations
As natural gas gains ground as a transportation fuel in commercial vehicles, mixed-fuelled fleet operators are looking for a single lubricant solution to help simplify logistics and reduce the potential for misapplication. Isabella Goldmints, Infineum Technologist, explains how a multifuel lubricant can be designed to deliver uncompromised protection to diesel, natural gas, and gasoline engines.
The global drive towards sustainable transportation and reduced emissions has led the industry to look at the use of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Since natural gas engines offer low emissions and proven performance, interest in their use in heavy-duty on- and off-highway applications is growing, where they often operate in mixed fleets along with diesel fuelled engines. The resulting need for a multifuel capable engine oil to provide excellent performance in natural gas, heavy-duty diesel and gasoline engines presents both opportunities and challenges for lubricant suppliers.
Unlike their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines operate at higher temperatures, produce more water vapour during combustion, and rely on ash containing additives in the oil to replace some lubricity, which is conventionally supplied by the diesel fuel.
At the same time, for the oil to be used in diesel engines it must provide soot dispersancy and particulate filter compatibility. These performance requirements pose extreme challenges to multifuel lubricants, which must provide excellent oxidation and nitration resistance, deposit prevention, corrosion control, soot dispersancy, and wear protection in a constrained ash environment.
Currently, OEMs do not have a uniform approach when it comes to lubricating heavy-duty natural gas engines. Some recommend ACEA E6 heavy-duty diesel oils, while others require oils that meet their own natural gas oil specifications. ACEA E6 chemical limits on phosphorous (0.08% maximum) and sulphated ash (1.0% maximum) generally meet the requirements for a three-way catalyst in natural gas applications, although lower ash may be required in some applications to avoid valve torching. However, API specifications for heavy-duty diesel engines, such as API CK-4, have a higher phosphorous limit of 0.12%, which is not compatible with a three-way catalyst and their use in natural gas and gasoline applications may potentially result in catalyst poisoning.
Huge potential for island nations and isolated power systems
The flexibility offered by multi-fuel engines makes the Wärtsilä 31DF engine ideal for use in isolated power systems that typically refer to power plants that operate independently of the countrywide electricity network, such as islands in remote locations and major off-grid power consumers like mines.
“We foresee huge potential for the Wärtsilä 31DF in island nations such as Indonesia, the Philippines and the Caribbean islands, where power systems are typically isolated and separate from large national grids,” says Mäkinen.
The Wärtsilä 31DF engine has a wide load range with high part-load efficiency. Its two-stage turbocharging enables more energy to be recovered from the exhaust gases resulting in significantly enhanced engine efficiency.
In addition, customers who choose the Wärtsilä 31DF engine also stand to benefit from outstanding operational flexibility, as it takes only two minutes to go from start command to full load. It is also able to switch over from liquid fuel to gas and vice versa seamlessly during engine operation.
Wartsila wins multi-fuel engine technology order for RoPax ferry pair
The new ferries will have the capacity to accommodate 1800 passengers.
Wartsila has secured an order to deliver its engines and fuel gas supply systems for two new RoPax ferries that are under construction at Finland’s Rauma Marine Constructions (RMC) yard.
These ferries are being built for Australian ferry fleet owner and operator TT-Line Company.
The new ferries will feature approximately 2500 lane metres on two freight decks, with a capacity to accommodate 1800 commuters.
While the first ferry is slated for delivery by the end of 2023, the second one is expected to be delivered a year later.
Each vessel will receive four Wartsila 46DF dual-fuel main engines, three Wartsila 20DF dual-fuel auxiliary engines, and two Wartsila LNGPac fuel storage, supply and control systems.
The company stated that its engines are ‘future-proofed’ to run on alternative green fuels.
TT-Line CEO Bernard Dwyer said: “Since 2002, when the current vessels were inducted into our fleet, the Wartsila engines have delivered both performance and reliability backed by strong service and technical support.
“Keeping in mind the IMO’s stringent emission targets for the future, TT Line has opted for liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled ferries.”
Rauma Marine Constructions president and CEO Jyrki Heinimaa said: “Our goal is to be a pioneer in environmentally sustainable technology in shipbuilding, and we want to provide vessels to our customers accordingly.”
At present, TT-Line runs two ferries, Spirit of Tasmania I and Spirit of Tasmania II.
Equipped with Wartsila engines, these ferries serve on the route between Melbourne, Victoria, and Devonport, Tasmania.
The two new 212m-long vessels will incorporate the latest technology and operate on LNG fuel for lower environmental impact.
Last month, Wartsila secured an order to deliver the main and auxiliary engines, along with the fuel storage and supply system, for a new Italian LNG-powered ferries.
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Leading Provider of Maritime Software for Cargo and Vessel Performance and Compliance
Prisma DI-5 and Prisma DI-5C Crankshaft Deflection Indicators
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Navis Carrier and Vessel Solutions
Leading Provider of Maritime Software for Cargo and Vessel Performance and Compliance
Prisma DI-5 and Prisma DI-5C Crankshaft Deflection Indicators
Multi-fuel Truck Engine lubricant Technology
Posted by Keith Reid | October 30, 2019
By Jamie Musmacher, Infineum
Today’s heavy-duty vehicles are using a broad range of engineering technologies and fuel types to meet tightening emissions regulations, while also meeting end-user demands for lower running costs and less down time. We explore the changing market dynamics and the growing need for multi-fuel lubricant technology.
Energy efficiency and the use of alternative fuels are central to many commercial vehicle OEMs’ strategies for meeting the stringent emissions limits that are being set in air quality policies.
Natural gas is a low-carbon, cleaner-burning fuel that is economical and in abundant supply. The Natural Gas Vehicle Association reports that replacing a diesel burning heavy-duty truck with one running on natural gas is the emissions equivalent to removing 119 traditional combustion engine cars from the road. On the face of it this makes natural gas a good option for use as a transportation fuel. But, infrastructure is still limited, with only 31,000 filling stations globally (60% in Asia Pacific) and this, combined with slow refueling, limited vehicle range, higher purchase price and lengthy return on investment periods, means the uptake of vehicles powered by this fuel has been slow. Currently it is estimated that some 26 million of the more than a billion vehicles in use today are powered by natural gas – 95% of which are light-duty vehicles.
With more than 200,000 natural gas heavy-duty trucks and buses, China is the largest gas for transport market in the world. Looking ahead, we can expect these numbers to grow as China announces that by the end of 2020, it will replace more than one million outdated heavy-duty diesel trucks with more modern electric or LNG trucks that are capable of complying with China VI emissions limits.
Natural gas engine technology developments
Engine technology is continuing to develop – rapidly closing the performance gap with diesel. The new generation of commercial vehicles now emerging are increasingly attractive to operators and offer a viable alternative to electrification.
In Europe, Volvo Trucks, for example, says it is offering liquefied natural gas as an option to meet customer demands for lower CO emissions without compromising on performance or productivity. The OEM has outlined the technical solution behind the LNG driveline – saying it builds on proven diesel technology. When the truck runs the liquid natural gas is heated and turned to compressed gas and, before it is injected, a very small amount of diesel is added to the cylinder to initiate ignition. Volvo Trucks expects that one of the big challenges of working with these high–pressure gas vehicles will be to ensure the system is tightly sealed; which means all the seals must offer long-term durability.
Volvo Trucks says this set up gives all the advantages of diesel – including high horsepower and torque – but emits 20% less CO. And, when the truck is fuelled with liquid biogas, which can be derived from organic waste such as green waste, animal residue and sewage, the OEM reports that tank-to-wheel CO emissions can be reduced by 100%.
In North America, Cummins has announced that its ISX12N 400 hp natural gas engine is certified to the California Air Resources Board’s optional low NOx standard of 0.02 g/bhp-hr, throughout a range of duty cycles. The OEM says that the engine has ‘electric-equivalent’ emissions when running on renewable natural gas.
The engine utilises proprietary spark-ignited, stoichiometric combustion with cooled exhaust gas recirculation technology, and maintenance-free three-way catalyst aftertreatment. No diesel particulate filter or selective catalytic reduction aftertreatment is required. The ISX12N has been in production since February 2018, and Cummins says that over 1,000 have been produced for its North American customers.
Natural gas lubricant specification
These latest natural gas engines demand higher performance from the lubricant. And, as oils trend to thinner SAE 10W-30 viscosity grades for improved fuel economy it is essential to ensure they can deliver robust wear protection over an extended oil drain interval.
To protect its natural gas engines using stoichiometric combustion over longer drain intervals, Cummins has introduced a new mobile natural gas engine oil performance specification – CES 20092. One of the key requirements is a two-year field test across multiple natural gas platforms, which demonstrates wear and corrosion protection, oxidation and nitration control, cleanliness performance and emulsion resistance. A second requirement of the new standard is to pass an engine dyno test designed to stress the oil’s oxidation and thermal stability in the natural gas environment.
With the use of CES 20092 approved oils, Cummins has recommended increasing the oil drain interval for its ISX12N gas engine to 40,000 miles/64,000 km for vehicles with average road speeds of greater than 25 mph/40km/h. Cummins says all its natural gas engines using stoichiometric combustion will benefit from a transition to CES 20092 oils, which require a more modern oil additive system than previously used for CES 20074 or CES 20085 oils. The new specification requires a much stronger antioxidant combination to provide protection at the high temperatures experienced in modern mobile natural gas engines.
Multi-fuel technology benefits end users
As more fleets operate multiple engines on different fuel types, it is increasingly advantageous for engine oils to offer protection in a multifuel world. What is needed for these fleets is a single oil that is approved across the fuels – meeting the latest Cummins CES 20092 gas engine standard, offering protection for diesel engines above API CK-4 and OEM specifications and carrying API SN approval for gasoline engines.
Diesel, gasoline and natural gas engines have very different requirements from the lubricant standpoint. By using innovative technology and advanced formulation know-how, it has been possible to meet, and exceed, the various needs of engines operating on all these fuel types in one package.
Jamie Musmacher is Infineum’s Commercial Vehicle Portfolio Manager. Infineum is a world leader in the formulation, manufacturing and marketing of petroleum additives for lubricants and fuels. Established in January 1999, Infineum is a joint venture of two of the most respected names in lubricants and fuels, ExxonMobil and Shell. Infineum has a rich heritage of creating oil additives for commercial vehicles, designed to protect and enhance the performance of engines operating over the road or in off-highway applications.
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@hamje32 — The concept of multi fuel has been extended to gas stoves to, although in a little different sense than you normally think. For example you can buy what’s called a dual fuel range.
This is a situation where your range has a gas stove top but the oven is electric. I think you can find many modern ranges that have this feature and it’s very convenient.
I’m all for gas in the stove top myself. I just think that it cooks better than an electric stove top, especially since I do a lot of stir fry and things like that. hamje32 March 11, 2012
@everetra — Multi fuel stoves are a great option to have in my opinion. You can burn coal as well as wood on it. It’s great for heating a room; I think it’s better than just a regular wood burning stove or a fireplace.
It does take a little longer to heat up the room with the multi fuel stove but the room will stay heated a lot longer than it would with a regular fireplace. I like that flexibility of not having to use wood. One winter we went through all of our log supplies very quickly. With coal we could have lasted a lot longer. everetra March 10, 2012
@NathanG — That may be true. However most people who buy these cars aren’t buying them only to save on gas costs. They are buying them for environmental reasons, to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emissions in the air. You can’t do that with a regular automobile.
Furthermore not every one sells their cars in five years. Some people run them until they have 300,000 miles on them, and some of the multi fuel cars like the Toyota Camry are capable of that. So you have to take all these things into consideration when weighing your decision. NathanG March 10, 2012
In principle I am all for vehicles with a multi fuel engine, like a hybrid car for example. However I think that the cost savings are a bit overblown. They do save on gas, but you pay thousands more up front for a comparable gas vehicle.
As a matter of fact one study that I looked at said that if you bought a hybrid it would take you about 12 years in gas savings to offset the difference in the purchase price between the hybrid and the regular vehicle.
I usually don’t hold my cars for more than five years so personally I don’t think that it would be worth it really.
Do You Have a Multifuel Engine? Benefits and Disadvantages
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A multifuel engine is a surprisingly common feature on modern cars but you’ve most likely never given it a second thought. That’s because the majority of vehicles built in the United States are designed to function not just on pure gasoline, but also something called E85, a fuel that is created by blending ethanol (a type of alcohol) and traditional gasoline.
The reason E85 is so popular has to do with government regulations concerning the production and marketing of ethanol. In America, ethanol is generated from corn stocks, which are subsidized in order to encourage biofuels as part of U.S. energy policy. Almost all gasoline in the United States contains up to 10 percent ethanol, but E85 is so named because the allowable percentage is between 51–85 percent, while the remainder is made up of traditional gasoline. The mixture can vary at different points during the year to compensate for the difficulties encountered when cold-starting a high-ethanol mix at low temperatures.
What’s the Difference?
A multifuel engine designed for E85 — also called Flex Fuel — requires special internal engine components, such as fuel pumps, rubber fittings, fuel hoses, seals and gaskets, that are capable of resisting the corrosive nature of ethanol. These engines deliver much more fuel than a traditional gasoline engine in order to combat the major failing of E85 — lower energy density.
In fact, any given volume of Flex Fuel offers roughly 75 percent of the energy available in gasoline, which means injectors and pumps have to work overtime so that the engine can generate the same amount of power it would on gas alone. This makes an E85 multifuel motor considerably less efficient. On the plus side, with a high octane rating — as much as 105, compared to the 93 found in premium pump gas — the potential to tune a multifuel engine for more power at the expense of fuel economy is substantial.
Are There Other Designs?
E85 is not the only multifuel engine design out there. Propane and compressed natural gas (CNG) are the most common alternative fuels that can run alongside gasoline, although the technology and components used to switch back and forth between either of these fuels and gasoline is more complicated than with E85. CNG and propane are most often used by large fleets operating trucks, vans and other heavy equipment, where it’s easier to realize economies of scale on the additional costs associated with these fuels.
For more information on your multifuel engine, chat with a knowledgeable expert at your local NAPA AUTO PARTS store.
Ammunition and gun loading, laying and retargeting are highly automated, allowing maximum firing rate of eight rounds a minute with onboard rounds and six to seven rounds a minute with rounds from the ground. A battery of eight MSTA-S can deliver 3t of projectiles on a target in one minute.
The laying control system is coordinated with the fire control vehicle. All the onboard ammunition is stored in the turret and a mobile reloading tray allows loading and firing at all angles of laying without needing the gun to return to the loading position. A charge loading mechanism is also provided. The system provides automatic gun loading for projectiles and semi-automatic loading for charges. All the gunner has to do is hold the panoramic sight on the laying point. The commander also has control of the firing and laying equipment.
The design of the ammunition rack allows different types of projectiles to be stored in the same rack. The automatic loading mechanism can select the type of ammunition and control the loading and the number of rounds. Used ammunition cases are ejected automatically to reduce the build-up of waste gases.
There are separate conveyers in the rear of the turret that allow the loading of ground ammunition. Before the howitzer starts off, the projectile conveyer is folded and fixed on the turret and the charge conveyer is folded inside the turret.