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Что такое трд двигатель

Турбореактивный двигатель

Турбореактивный двигатель (ТРД, англоязычный термин — turbojet engine) — Воздушно-реактивный двигатель (ВРД), в котором сжатие рабочего тела на входе в камеру сгорания и высокое значение расхода воздуха через двигатель достигается за счёт совместного действия встречного потока воздуха и компрессора, размещённого в тракте ТРД сразу после входного устройства, перед камерой сгорания. Компрессор приводится в движение турбиной, смонтированной на одном валу с ним, и работающей на том же рабочем теле, нагретом в камере сгорания, из которого образуется реактивная струя. Во входном устройстве осуществляется рост статического давления воздуха за счёт торможения воздушного потока. В компрессоре осуществляется рост полного давления воздуха за счёт совершаемой компрессором механической работы. В камере сгорания производится подвод теплоты. Часть энергии рабочего тела отнимается турбиной. В реактивном сопле формируется реактивная струя.

Что такое реактивный ранец?

Джетпак — самый компактный из летательных аппаратов. Это ракетный или реактивный ранец, который крепится к спине и поднимает в воздух одного человека.

Есть два типа ранцев — с ракетным или турбореактивным двигателем:

  1. Первые — самые простые и популярные. Внутри расположен двигатель, который сжигает топливо и выбрасывает вниз реактивную струю. Ранец состоит из корсета, рамы, баллонов с перекисью водорода и азотом, а также двигателя. Управляется он двумя рычагами. Ракетные ранцы относительно безопасны, но расходуют много топлива и летать с их помощью можно недолго. Пилоту понадобится термостойкий костюм, чтобы не получить ожоги от двигателя.
  2. Ранцы с турбореактивным двигателем работают на керосине, набирают бóльшую высоту и дольше держатся в полете. Главный минус — сложная и дорогая конструкция.

У такого ранца внутри двухконтурный турбореактивный двигатель, где входящий воздух сжимается компрессором и разделяется на два потока. Один из них сгорает и выделяет энергию, а второй помогает охлаждать двигатель и защищает пилота от перегрева. Причем сопла устроены так, что реактивная струя может быть направлена не только вниз, но и в любую другую сторону.

Джетпаки постоянно совершенствуются. Например, за счет электронного управления двигателем. Это облегчает управление и вес ранца, а также позволяет зависать в воздухе и не двигать джойстиками.

Миниатюрные газовые или дизельные двигатели — до 9 кг — тоже облегчают конструкцию. Это позволяет взять с собой дополнительный запас топлива и увеличить время полета.

Toyota hasn’t released official pricing, but says the GR 86 will start under $30,000 when it goes on sale. The upgraded Premium model offers a host of compelling standard equipment, including 18-inch wheels with Michelin Pilot Sport 4 tires, leather upholstery, a rear spoiler, and aluminum pedal covers.

Like the first-generation model, the 2022 GR 86 comes with a naturally aspirated horizontally opposed four-cylinder provided by Subaru. Acceleration was decently brisk in the outgoing model at 6.2 seconds to 60 mph, but the 2022 model should be slightly quicker thanks to a more powerful 2.4-liter engine that makes 228 horsepower. A six-speed manual continues to serve as the GR 86’s standard transmission, while a six-speed automatic is optional. During our first test drive, we noted that the more powerful engine felt livelier and sounds better while the car’s razor-sharp handling provided thrills both on the road and on the Monticello Motor Club race track. Despite the car’s handling prowess, the suspension is forgiving enough to work as a daily driver. When we get a chance to test the new GR 86 and its twin, the Subaru BRZ, we’ll update this story with test results.

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Updated technology

Like every 2021 Camry, the TRD receives a new floating touchscreen infotainment display that puts the controls a tad closer to passengers, and helps decrease glare on the relatively small 7-inch screen. Buttons and knobs flanking the screen enable easy access to the commonly used menus and stereo adjustments, while the touchscreen’s layout is easy to navigate. Unfortunately, the system has a noticeable delay when changing between menus.

A floating infotainment screen is new for 2021.

Standard features include a six-speed sound system, satellite radio, Bluetooth, a Wi-Fi hotspot and both Apple CarPlay and Android Auto connectivity. If you’re an audiophile, you can option out your Camry TRD with a nine-speaker JBL audio system for an additional $1,585.

On the active safety front, the TRD gains standard blind-spot monitoring and rear cross-traffic alert for 2021 in addition to an improved Toyota Safety Sense 2.5 Plus package. Forward-collision warning can now pick up bicyclists and is better at detecting pedestrians in low-light situations. Adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking, lane-departure warning and road sign assist are also included.

The 2022 Toyota Tundra TRD Pro Improves On The 2021 Truck

The 2021 Tundra TRD Pro has its shortcomings. This truck is only available with a naturally-aspirated 5.7-liter V8. Unfortunately, this engine gives up horsepower and mpgs to Dodge’s 5.7-liter HEMI V8. To make matters worse, according to CarGurus says, the Tundra’s six-speed automatic “is outclass by everything in the segment.” Finally, the Tundra comes on outdated leaf springs, not ideal for off-roading.

Engineers turned to tried-and-true technology to redesign the 2022 Toyota Tundra TRD Pro from the ground up. They began with Toyota’s New Global Architecture Full-frame chassis (TNGA-F).

The new TNGA-F chassis improved every specification of the 2021 Land Cruiser: reducing its weight by 441 pounds, lowering its center of gravity, and increasing its overall rigidity. Off road, the new Land Cruiser maintains its 9.1 inches of ground clearance and its impressive departure and approach angles.

Riding on its new frame, the Tundra trades its rear leaf springs in for coils–just like the Ford Raptor. Toyota will even increase the Tundra’s lug nuts to six per wheel. The new 2022 Toyota Tundra TRD Pro will also have a Multi-terrain system controlled by a knob on the center console with settings labeled MTS and DAC/CRAWL, as well as the TOW setting.

Choosing Your Toyota RAV4

Toyota offers the RAV4 in six trim levels: LE, XLE, XLE Premium, Adventure, Limited, and TRD Off-Road. Prices start at $27,225 including destination for the LE and go up to $36,995 for the TRD Off-Road.

Engine Choices

Unlike a few of its competitors, the RAV4 is only available with one engine. Power comes from a 2.5-liter four-cylinder that generates 203 horsepower and 184 pound-feet of torque. The engine is paired with an eight-speed automatic transmission.

The Adventure and TRD Off-Road trims are available with all-wheel drive as standard, while it’s a $1,400 option throughout the rest of the lineup.

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The RAV4 earns an EPA-estimated 28 miles per gallon city, 35 mpg highway, and 30 combined, or 27/33/29 mpg (city/highway/combined) with AWD.

Passenger and Cargo Capacity

All RAV4 models have seating for up to five passengers. With the rear seats in place, the RAV4 offers 37.6 cubic feet of cargo space. Folding the rear seats down opens up 69.8 cubic feet. These figures are better than the majority of compact crossovers, though the Honda CR-V and Subaru Forester best them narrowly.

Safety Features

Toyota Safety Sense 2.0 is standard on every RAV4, bringing forward collision warning, automatic emergency braking, lane keeping assist, lane departure warning, road sign assist, automatic high beams, and adaptive cruise control as standard.

To get blind-spot monitoring and rear cross-traffic alert on the LE trim, you’ll have to spend $590 on the Blind Spot Monitor package. These two features are standard on all other trims. Moving up to the Limited trim nets standard front and rear parking sensors.

On the XLE Premium and TRD Off-Road, the $2,835 Technology Package brings parking sensors and rear automatic emergency braking. The Limited is available with a surround-view camera system through the $2,040 Limited Grade Advanced Technology Package.

The RAV4 earned a five-star overall safety rating from the NHTSA, while the IIHS named it a Top Safety Pick.

Connectivity

The standard infotainment system on the RAV4 consists of a 7-inch touchscreen, Apple CarPlay, Android Auto, Amazon Alexa, wi-fi hot spot capabiliy, and satellite radio.

A larger 8-inch touchscreen is available on the XLE and XLE Premium, while the other three trims come with the screen as standard. Navigation is optional on the Adventure and TRD Off-Road trims and is only standard on the Limited.

Standard features on the RAV4 LE include LED headlights, power-folding exterior mirrors, 17-inch steel wheels, and roof rails are standard exterior features. Cloth upholstery, remote keyless entry, and six audio speakers are also standard.

The XLE adds 17-inch alloy wheels, fog lights, heated exterior mirrors, dual-zone climate control, an eight-way power-adjustable driver’s seat, and push button start.

A heated steering wheel, heated front seats, and rain-sensing windshield wipers are available for $925 through the XLE Weather Package. The available XLE Convenience Package adds a height-adjustable power liftgate and a moonroof for $1,265.

The larger 8-inch touchscreen can be bundled with the XLE Convenience Package to make the XLE Convenience Package and Audio Plus. It’s priced at $2,255.

The XLE Premium adds 19-inch wheels, a moonroof, a height-adjustable power liftgate, and synthetic leather upholstery.

The best value of the available packages is the $2,835 XLE Premium Grade Advanced Technology Package and Audio Plus with JBL. It bundles the 8-inch touchscreen, an 11-speaker JBL audio system, wireless charging, a digital rearview mirror, rear automatic emergency braking, parking sensors and more.

All-wheel drive is standard on the Adventure trim, as are 19-inch wheels, a unique grille, a special black bumper, black fenders, badges, raised black roof rails, and synthetic leather upholstery with orange accents.

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The available Adventure Grade Convenience Package is priced at $1,265 and adds a height-adjustable power liftgate and a moonroof.

The Limited is the most upscale RAV4 in the lineup, featuring chrome exterior accents, a moonroof, a height-adjustable liftgate, synthetic leather upholstery, heated front seats, and a digital rearview mirror.

A panoramic moonroof, heated steering wheel, ventilated front seats, rear heated seats, surround-view camera, wireless charging, and more are bundled for $2,540.

The TRD Off-Road, as its name indicates, is the off-road-oriented RAV4. It reverts back to the Adventure’s list of standard features, but adds 18-inch TRD wheels, LED fog lights, a front skid plate, synthetic leather upholstery, and red stitching.

The 2021 Toyota RAV4 is best in the XLE Premium trim. It comes with plenty of standard features and the ability to add the larger touchscreen, JBL audio system, heated seats, and more safety features result in a well-rounded compact crossover that’s hard to beat.

Available Options

  • Fuel Economy Est-Combined (MPG): 20
  • EPA Fuel Economy Est — City (MPG): 18
  • EPA Fuel Economy Est — Hwy (MPG): 22
  • Maximum Alternator Capacity (amps): 130
  • Base Curb Weight (lbs): 4550
  • Gross Vehicle Weight Rating Cap (lbs): 5600
  • Gross Combined Wt Rating (lbs): 11360
  • Dead Weight Hitch — Max Trailer Wt. (lbs): 5000
  • Dead Weight Hitch — Max Tongue Wt. (lbs): 500
  • Wt Distributing Hitch — Max Trailer Wt. (lbs): 6400
  • Wt Distributing Hitch — Max Tongue Wt. (lbs): 640
  • Maximum Trailering Capacity (lbs): 6400
  • Suspension Type — Front: Double Wishbone
  • Suspension Type — Rear: Leaf
  • Axle Type — Front: Independent
  • Axle Type — Rear: Rigid Axle
  • Axle Ratio (:1) — Front: 3.91
  • Axle Ratio (:1) — Rear: 3.91
  • Brake Type: Front Disc/Rear Drum
  • Brake ABS System: 4-Wheel
  • Brake ABS System (Second Line): 4-Wheel
  • Disc — Front (Yes or ): Yes
  • Front Brake Rotor Diam x Thickness (in): 10.8
  • Rear Brake Rotor Diam x Thickness (in): 10
  • Drum — Rear (Yes or ): Yes
  • Rear Drum Diam x Width (in): 10
  • Front Tire Size: P265/70SR16
  • Rear Tire Size: P265/70SR16
  • Spare Tire Size: Full-Size
  • Front Wheel Size (in): 16 X 7
  • Rear Wheel Size (in): 16 X 7
  • Spare Wheel Size (in): Full-Size
  • Front Wheel Material: Aluminum
  • Rear Wheel Material: Aluminum
  • Spare Wheel Material: Steel
  • Steering Type: Rack-Pinion
  • Turning Diameter — Curb to Curb (ft): 40.6
  • Fuel Tank Capacity, Approx (gal): 21.1
  • Wheelbase (in): 127.4
  • Length, Overall (in): 212.3
  • Width, Max w/o mirrors (in): 75.2
  • Height, Overall (in): 70.6

Cargo Area Dimensions

  • Cargo Box Length @ Floor (in): 60.5
  • Cargo Box Width @ Top, Rear (in): 56.7
  • Cargo Box Width @ Floor (in): 56.7
  • Cargo Box Width @ Wheelhousings (in): 41.5
  • Cargo Box (Area) Height (in): 19.1
  • Passenger Capacity: 5
  • Front Head Room (in): 39.7
  • Front Leg Room (in): 42.9
  • Front Shoulder Room (in): 58.3
  • Front Hip Room (in): 57.2
  • Second Head Room (in): 38.3
  • Second Leg Room (in): 32.6
  • Second Shoulder Room (in): 58.9
  • Second Hip Room (in): 56.3
  • Vehicle Name: Toyota Tacoma 4WD
  • Body Style: Double Cab
  • Body Code: T
  • Tons/yr of CO2 Emissions @ 15K mi/year: 8.9
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